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Research & Publications

At a glance!



M. Phil Awarded

Journal Volumes Published


Major International Research in the field of Internal Security

Robust. Resilient. Sustainable. Integrated Security for Germany (New)

In this National Security Strategy, the Federal Government of Germany describes what it means for Germany now and what conclusions it draws from that in order to ensure the security of the country and its people in the future. In this report, the German Government highlights that this aim can be achieved through a policy of Integrated Security. By this the German govt. mean the collaborative interaction of all relevant actors, resources and instruments that, in combination, can comprehensively guarantee the security of our country and strengthen it against external threats.
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UK Biological Security Strategy (New)

The UK Strategy sets out to a renewed vision, mission, outcomes and plans to protect the land and its interests from significant biological risks, no matter how these occur and no matter who or what they affect. It provides the overarching strategic framework for mitigating biological risks within which a number of threat and disease specific UK strategies critically contribute.
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Military Applications of Virtual Reality and Beyond (New)

The use of Virtual Reality (VR) for military applications has been widespread in the US and NATO countries, including for combat training and simulation, as a cultural immersion tool prior to deployment and for stress testing of soldiers. Challenges associated with the use of VR in the national security context include those relating to objective evaluation standards of training protocols, among others. In the Indian context, the use of VR can improve training standards and create a more culturally adaptable professional force.
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Taking the Measure of AI and National Security (New)

The rise of artificial intelligence and machine learning gives new meaning to the measure-countermeasure dynamic that is, the continuous evolution of defensive and offensive capabilities. The development of large language models, in particular, underscores the necessity of understanding and managing this dynamic.
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Sentinels Rising Commercial High-Resolution Satellite Imagery and Its Implications for US National Security (New)

This Article highlights that Imagery is powerful, persuasive, and poignant. Within the photo graphic image lies a wealth of information that can transcend the mere representation of reflected photons. Not only can images record an event frozen in space and time, they inform authoritatively and are presumed to offer immutable representations of fact. Moreover, images can often evoke an emotional response from those who view them.
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Machine Learning for Operational Decision-making in Competition and Conflict (New)

The integration of machine learning into military decision-making is widely seen as critical for the United States to retain its military dominance in the 21st century. Advances in machine learning have the potential to dramatically change the character of warfare by enhancing the speed, precision, and efficacy of decision-making across the national security enterprise. This report explores how machine learning can be leveraged to enable military decision-making at the operational level of competition and conflict as part of a collaboration between machine learning tools and human analysts.
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Toward a New Paradigm in U.S. Foreign Policy (New)

In this Perspective, the authors call for the development of a new paradigm for U.S. foreign policy—a “whole of America” approach anchored in a shared understanding that the nation’s governments, businesses, civil society, and academic institutions all have unique roles to play in defending core U.S. principles of democracy and freedom.
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Iran, Russia, and the Syrian Regime are Coordinating to Expel US Forces from Syria (New)

This report underlines the operations undertaken by the al-Assad alliance to counter American interest in Syria. This campaign poses a serious risk to US forces in Syria and US interests in the Middle East. Iran and the Syrian regime have surged forces and materiel to the line of contact with the Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF) in northeastern Syria from July 7 through July 12. Both have deployed additional forces and materiel to the area since then at lower rates. The Iranian and Syrian deployments to eastern Syria have occurred alongside growing operational coordination with Russia.
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Gradual Relation between Perceptual Awareness, Recognition and Pupillary Responses to Social Threat (New)

There is substantial evidence supporting the processing of affective stimuli outside of conscious awareness in both healthy individuals and brain-damaged patients. However, the methodologies used to assess awareness are still a matter of debate, with also implications for dichotomous or gradual theories. Two experiments investigated how social threat is processed in healthy participants by combining the continuous flash suppression paradigm and the perceptual awareness scale, a fine-grained measure of perceptual awareness. Our findings revealed a gradual relationship between emotional recognition and perceptual awareness, with higher recognition sensitivity for fearful than angry bodies across all visual awareness levels, except during perceptual unawareness where performance was at chance level.
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Critical Narratives or Crime Stories? The Ethics and Politics of Narrative Research in Criminology (New)

There has long been fruitful discussion about what the use of narrative offers sociological enquiry, including within the discipline of criminology. In particular, the field of ‘narrative criminology’ has developed as a scholarly movement committed to centring the place of narratives in criminological research. It adopts a constitutive understanding of narrative, centred around the belief that narratives shape experience and action, helping individuals attribute meaning to their lives.
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An Intersectional Analysis of Technology-Facilitated Abuse: Prevalence, Experiences and Impacts of Victimization (New)

Technology-facilitated abuse (TFA) is a growing problem. The majority of TFA victimization studies to date have examined abuse categories in isolation, such as image-based abuse (IBA), and have typically focussed on women’s victimization, with less research examining the broader spectrum of TFA behaviours or victimization demographic characteristics. his paper responds to this knowledge gap, presenting results from a government-funded, mixed-methods study involving a nationally representative survey of TFA victimization in Australia (n = 4,562), and qualitative interviews with adults who have experienced TFA (n = 20).
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The Role of Microorganisms in the Biotransformation of Psychoactive Substances and its Forensic Relevance: A Critical Interdisciplinary Review (New)

The comprehension of the interaction between microorganisms and drugs is relevant for forensic toxicology and forensic chemistry, elucidating potential pathways of microbial metabolism and their implications. Considering the described scenario, this paper aims to provide a comprehensive and critical review of the state of the art of interactions among microorganisms and common drugs of abuse. Additionally, other drugs of forensic interest are briefly discussed. This paper outlines the importance of this area of investigation, covering the intersections between forensic microbiology, forensic chemistry and forensic toxicology applied to drugs of abuse, and it also highlights research potentialities.
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Rapid and non-destructive approach for characterization and differentiation of sealing wax using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy (New)

Sealing wax is used for maintaining the integrity and authenticity of a document or physical evidence. Any tampering with the seal calls into question the overall integrity and authenticity of the tangible evidence or document. In these circumstances, determining the authenticity of the sealing material (physical and chemical) becomes imperative. In this study, ATR-FTIR spectroscopy supported by chemometrics has been used to differentiate sealing wax samples belonging to 12 different brands available across India.
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Identification of bullets fired from air guns using machine and deep learning methods (New)

Ballistics (the linkage of bullets and cartridge cases to weapons) is a common type of evidence encountered in criminal cases around the world. The interest lies in determining whether two bullets were fired using the same firearm. This paper proposes an automated method to classify bullets from surface topography and Land Engraved Area (LEA) images of the fired pellets using machine and deep learning methods.
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G20 New Delhi Leaders’ Declaration (New)

We, the Leaders of the G20, met in New Delhi on 9-10 September 2023, under the theme ‘Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam’. We meet at a defining moment in history where the decisions we make now will determine the future of our people and our planet. It is with the philosophy of living in harmony with our surrounding ecosystem that we commit to concrete actions to address global challenges.
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Next Generation Forensic Taphonomy: Automation for Experimental, Field-based Research (New)

The overarching goal of the study of forensic taphonomy has remained unchanged from the discipline’s inception in 1940: to unravel the complexities of the temporal and spatial relationship between the depositional environment and organic material deposited therein. The shorter temporal applications of forensic taphonomy necessitate a comprehensive understanding of the decomposition ecosystem to assist in medicolegal death investigations observed that “taphonomic models, approaches, and analyses in forensic contexts” may be used to “estimate the time since death, reconstruct the circumstances before and after deposition, and discriminate the products of human behaviour from those created by the earth’s biological, physical, chemical, and geological subsystems.” Such answers regularly prove pivotal for resolution of medicolegal death investigations.
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Testing Human Ability to Detect ‘Deepfake’ Images of Human Faces (New)

‘Deepfakes’ are computationally created entities that falsely represent reality. They can take image, video, and audio modalities, and pose a threat to many areas of systems and societies, comprising a topic of interest to various aspects of cybersecurity and cybersafety. In 2020, a workshop consulting AI experts from academia, policing, government, the private sector, and state security agencies ranked deepfakes as the most serious AI threat. These experts noted that since fake material can propagate through many uncontrolled routes, changes in citizen behaviour may be the only effective defence. This study aims to assess human ability to identify image deepfakes of human faces (these being uncurated output from the StyleGAN2 algorithm as trained on the FFHQ dataset) from a pool of non-deepfake images (these being random selection of images from the FFHQ dataset), and to assess the effectiveness of some simple interventions intended to improve detection accuracy.
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Raising the Regional Cooperation Dimension in Africa (New)

India is championing the AU’s membership of the G20, pursuing reform of multilateral development institutions (MDI), and is reinvigorating its Africa policy. As the India-Africa relationship finds new levels, it could seek determinants to further the relationship. The Lines of Credit-led model served India well, as it extended US$12.26 billion in soft loans to 42 countries. This is now unpopular because of debt stress, defaults, and countries opting out of debt.
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Cyber-Biosecurity: An Emerging National Security Frontier (New)

Cyber-Biosecurity, an emerging threat landscape at the intersection of cybersecurity, cyber-physical security and biosecurity has a potential to disrupt economic, social and political well-being of the nation and has tremendous national security implications. All forms of cyber-attacks impact the manufacturing industries, governments, health infrastructure, patients and bio-economy at large. Rapidly evolving Cyber-Biosecurity threat landscape has potential to disrupt the rapid growth of Indian bio-economy by compromising data security and intellectual property, disrupting manufacturing operations and supply chains resulting in destabilising investor confidence in Indian Bio-economy. Indian National Security Framework too needs to have comprehensive Cyber-Biosecurity policy and infrastructure in place before the biological equivalent of Metasploit becomes commonplace. Some important considerations for the same are the not-so-covert ongoing conflicts in the cyberspace with a probability of boiling over to the Cyber-Biosecurity landscape, and ‘Defend Forward’ as deterrence policy of many nations. India urgently needs to address the need for robust Cyber-Biosecurity legal infrastructure and comprehensive policy formation with the proactive participation of all the stakeholders.
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New Neuroimaging Approach Could Improve Diagnosis of Schizophrenia (New)

The study used new analytic approaches developed at the TReNDS center. Researchers used a hybrid, data-driven method called Neuromark to extract reliable brain networks from the neuroimaging data which were then further analyzed in the study. Researchers started with functional MRI scans (fMRI) to detect age-related changes in brain connectivity and their association with schizophrenia risk. The research identified high-risk individuals for developing psychosis during late adolescence and early adulthood. Using this novel approach to existing functional neuroimaging datasets led to a breakthrough in understanding both genetic and clinical risks for schizophrenia in the context of how brain regions communicate with each other.
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Integrated Theatre Commands is Starting to See the Light of Day (New)

With all three Indian armed services namely the Indian Army (IA), Indian Navy (IN) and Indian Air Force (IAF) narrowing their differences to establish Integrated Theatre Commands (ITCs), by August 2023, the country should see its first ITC under the Modi government. Additionally, it is also ripe to evaluate why theatre commands are necessary and take stock of the challenges that face theaterisation. This article discusses the results with regard to ITRs so far and what problems stare at them.
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(Re)Claiming its Influence: Russia’s Role in Afghanistan (New)

The fall of Kabul in August 2021 prompted discussions about the end of Western influence in the country and an opportunity for China and Russia to dig their heels in the ‘graveyard of empires’. In the immediate aftermath, in contrast with Afghanistan’s other neighbours, Russia didn’t close its embassy in Kabul, with many Russian officials retaining a positive perception about what a Taliban rule could mean for Kabul as well as for Moscow. While the baggage of history and the baggage of the present, i.e., the ongoing Ukraine crisis will weigh down on any Russian considerations with regard to Afghanistan, the coming months will see Moscow balancing its security and strategic interests in the region, along with attempts to expand its economic influence.
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Operation Narsil Disrupts Network of Child Abuse Websites Designed to Generate Profits from Advertising (New)

INTERPOL has concluded a two-year global operation to bring to justice criminals operating networks of child sexual abuse websites designed to generate profits from advertising. Running from December 2021 to July 2023, Operation Narsil also targeted the finance mechanisms used by the website administrators to conduct their online advertising campaigns. Over two years, INTERPOL member countries worked together using INTERPOL’s Worst of List (IWOL), sharing targeted intelligence, pinpointing suspects and coordinating arrests of the people managing the websites. Created in 2010, IWOL contains a watchlist of websites containing extreme child abuse material. The General Secretariat headquarters works with law enforcement in all regions so that national Internet service providers close down these websites.
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Joint Communiqué on the visit of Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi to France

At the invitation of President of H.E. Mr. France Emmanuel Macron, Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi concluded a historical visit as the Guest of Honour at the National Day of the French Republic on the occasion of the 25th anniversary of the India-France Strategic Partnership. In January 1998, in a world of change and uncertainty, Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee and President Jacques Chirac elevated the relationship to a Strategic Partnership – one of the first for India with any country.
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Economic Security and the U.S. Department of Homeland Security

The U.S. Department of Homeland Security’s (DHS’s) contributions to U.S. economic security and, by extension, the economy itself can be seen in the formulation of one of the six homeland security missions that pertains directly to promoting U.S. economic security. The department describes the importance of its mission to “preserve and uphold the nation’s prosperity and economic security” as follows: America’s prosperity and economic security are integral to DHS’s homeland security operations, which affect international trade, national transportation systems, maritime activities and resources, and financial systems.
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Reformulation of Regulations in the Context of Structuring the Indonesian Maritime Security Regime

This article discusses the reformulation of regulations in the context of structuring the Indonesian maritime security regime. The research employs a qualitative method using secondary data sources obtained through a literature review. The specific background of problems addressed in this research includes issues related to IUU fishing and other maritime security threats faced by Indonesia. The main problem addressed is the lack of cross-sectoral coordination and frequent differences in perception of authority among law enforcement agencies at sea. The research objective is to examine how restructuring Indonesia’s maritime security regime can be achieved through reformulation of overlapping regulations and harmonization of authority among maritime security agencies.
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Assessing Misperceptions Online About the Security Clearance Process

This report describes and analyzes information and potential misinformation available online about the security clearance process that could lead to misperceptions about the process. The security clearance process may seem confusing and opaque to the public, leading some people to seek clarity from others about their own experiences. Seeking out this kind of information from acquaintances, friends, and family is nothing new, but access to the internet allows people to search for additional sources that might offer answers to their questions, as well as inquire of a larger number of people on public forums about this process.
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ChatGPT Is Creating New Risks for National Security

Large language models like ChatGPT and Claude offer a wide range of beneficial applications. However, there are significant risks associated with their use that demand a coordinated effort among partner nations to forge a solid, integrated defense against the threat of malign information operations.
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Tackling the Existential Threats from Artificial Intelligence

Addressing potential risks posed by artificial intelligence (AI) could begin with simple steps like finding appropriate risk-management approaches, conducting research to determine how AI can better meet designers’ intent, and devising responses to issues related to racism, sexism, and other biases within AI systems.
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Like-Minded Allies? Indo-Pacific Partners’ Views on Possible Changes in the U.S. Relationship with Taiwan

Debates in the United States about policy toward Taiwan tend to focus on the choice between strategic ambiguity and strategic clarity and how these options affect China’s calculus on invading the island. The authors expand the discussion by considering how Japan, the Republic of Korea (ROK), and the Philippines would react to a range of policies the United States may choose to signal either an increase or a decrease in support to Taiwan. To do so, the authors reviewed each ally’s historical relationship with Taiwan and the contemporary relations with the United States, China, and Taiwan.
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Preparing for Great Power Conflict, How Experience Shapes U.S. and Chinese Military Training

The U.S. and Chinese militaries have been shaped by a distinct set of direct and indirect experiences. The U.S. military has focused its energy and resources on combating terrorism and performing counterinsurgency operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. Even in 2023, U.S. emphasis on major power competition contends with other national security priorities, including current crises and continued deployments around the globe. The People’s Liberation Army (PLA), on the other hand, has largely focused its military modernization and restructuring to prepare for a regional conflict that would likely involve U.S. military intervention. Despite having no combat experience since the 1979 Sino-Vietnamese War, the PLA has conducted an in-depth study of all aspects of the U.S. military’s technological and operational capabilities — including its organization, command and control, logistics, joint operations, and concepts of operation — since the 1990s.
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2022 Arms Sales Risk Index

To promote debate and help improve U.S. decision-making about arms sales, we created the Arms Sales Risk Index, now in its fifth year. By measuring the factors linked to negative outcomes of arms sales, such as dispersion, diversion, and the misuse of weapons by recipients, the index provides a way to assess the risk involved with selling arms to another nation. Though this sort of assessment is by no means an exact science, and we focus here only on the potential downsides of sales, the Arms Sales Risk Index can help policymakers consider the dangers of U.S. arms sales policy more rigorously and make better decisions about which nations should and should not receive U.S. weapons.
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No Return for Yevgeny Prigozhin—or Russia

“Treason doth never prosper, what’s the reason? For if it prospers, none dare call it treason,” wrote the Elizabethan English poet John Harington. The actions of Yevgeny Prigozhin, who defiantly marched his Wagner mercenary army across Russia on Saturday before abruptly stopping short of Moscow, are being described as treason and mutiny. Really, however, the weekend’s events would be better described as an “anti-utopia,” as something similar to Alexander Kabakov’s 1990 dystopian novel No Return, with its portrayal of civil war and the collapse of the state.
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Towards more relevance in forensic science research and development

Many different issues have been identified in forensic science for more than 10 years. While quality management has often been suggested as a path forward, research is generally considered as an essential part of the solution. Through an overview of current forensic science research, this paper aims at evaluating if and how research answer the challenges forensic science is currently facing. While forensic related publications have massively increased over the years, approximately half of the publications were published in non-forensic sources, indicating that forensic science research tends to be led by other disciplines. Over the years, forensic science research has remained largely oriented towards methodological and technological development rather than relevance to the forensic science discipline and practice.
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Ethical data sharing in forensic research

Protecting human research participants is paramount in all scientific fields. In biomedical research, extensive policies and regulations protect the privacy of human subjects. Centralized protected databases exist for researchers to access anonymized data. These safeguards are not as extensive or regulated for academic research in the forensic sciences. Practices like those used in the biomedical field should be implemented by crime labs and police agencies to protect victim privacy.At the invitation of President of H.E. Mr. France Emmanuel Macron, Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi concluded a historical visit as the Guest of Honour at the National Day of the French Republic on the occasion of the 25th anniversary of the India-France Strategic Partnership. In January 1998, in a world of change and uncertainty, Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee and President Jacques Chirac elevated the relationship to a Strategic Partnership – one of the first for India with any country.
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India-USA Joint Statement during the Official State visit of Prime Minister, Shri Narendra Modi to USA

Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi and President H.E. Mr Joe Biden today affirmed a vision of the India and United States as among the closest partners in the world – a partnership of democracies looking into the 21st century with hope, ambition, and confidence. The India-U.S Comprehensive Global and Strategic Partnership is anchored in a new level of trust and mutual understanding and enriched by the warm bonds of family and friendship that inextricably link our countries together.
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Colonization of Diatoms in and on Porcine Bone Substrate and Considerations of Diatom Ecology for Forensic Science

The presence of diatom algae in bone marrow has been used as forensic evidence of drowning for several decades; however, these studies are based on known or suspected recent drowning events. This study addresses the potential for diatoms to enter the bone marrow of skeletal remains, that is, de-fleshed long bones post-mortem. In laboratory and field experiments, bones were either inflicted with two access points by a cut and acid pitting or left intact. The bones were submerged in water for at least 1 week and up to 3 months. Samples of the bone surface and marrow were inspected for diatoms.
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Repeatability and Reproducibility of Comparison Decisions by Firearms Examiners

In a comprehensive study to assess various aspects of the performance of qualified forensic firearms examiners, volunteer examiners compared both bullets and cartridge cases fired from three different types of firearms. They rendered opinions on each comparison according to the Association of Firearm & Tool Mark Examiners (AFTE) Range of Conclusions, as Identification, Inconclusive, Elimination, or Unsuitable. In this part of the study, comparison sets used previously to characterize the overall accuracy of examiners were blindly resubmitted to examiners to assess the repeatability and reproducibility of firearms examinations.
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Truth Decay Is Putting U.S. National Security at Risk

America’s troubled relationship with facts is putting national security at risk. A recent RAND paper warned that “Truth Decay”—the diminishing role of facts and analysis in public life—could weaken our military, costs us credibility with our allies, and calls into question our ability to respond to the next big crisis. Experts from across RAND described Truth Decay as a “huge vulnerability,” an “obvious one,” “a strong weapon” in the hands of our adversaries. Yet the full extent of the damage we are doing to ourselves is only just beginning to come into focus.
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Can a Defense Innovation Bridge Elevate India-U.S. Defense Cooperation?

India and the United States are set to launch INDUS-X, an innovation bridge under the initiative on Critical and Emerging Technology (iCET) that will connect the defense innovation ecosystems of both countries. India and the United States hold defense cooperation as a major pillar of their strategic partnership, and defense ties between the two countries have deepened considerably over the last two decades. However, defense innovation cooperation has been noticeably absent from the relationship. Could INDUS-X bridge this gap?
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Mapping the Indian Ocean Region

The Indian Ocean region has been an important trade arena for centuries. Today, it remains critical to the security and stability of shipping lanes and trade routes, accounting for over one-third of the world’s bulk cargo traffic and two-thirds of the world’s oil shipments and ensuring global access to food, precious metals, and energy resources. Stretching from Africa’s eastern coast to Australia’s western coast, the region is home to thirty-three nations and 2.9 billion people. Given the region’s importance, many countries around the world work with regional partners to maintain open access to the Indian Ocean’s critical waterways and natural resources.
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Integrating Cyber into Warfighting: Some Early Takeaways from the Ukraine Conflict

It is too early to draw definitive conclusions about cyber warfare in the lead-up to and the execution of the Ukraine war. Data are lacking, and the outcome of the conflict remains uncertain. Yet through monitoring and analysis of a single year in the first major war into which cyber has been extensively woven, we do know enough to be able to generate some tentative, high-level, generic propositions on the nature of cyber conflict. These propositions draw on wide-ranging press reporting and extrapolate from several superb pieces recently published. However, we must still tread cautiously. Our propositions draw on highly imperfect empirical knowledge of a single historical case that is still unfolding. Current and future antagonists are also constantly learning from their own and others’ analyses and enhancing their performance, which can render current assessments obsolete.
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Handling of Sexual Violence Against Psychologically Traumatized Children by the Women’s and Children’s Service Unit at the West Jakarta Metro Police Station (New)

The occurrence of criminal acts of sexual violence is evidence of the vulnerability of women’s position, especially against men’s sexual interests. Women and children’s sexual image as male sexual objects have far-reaching implications, forcing them to face violence, coercion, physical torture, and psychological trauma. This study aims to investigate how the PPA unit or Women and Child Protection of the West Jakarta Metro Police Satreskrim (Criminal Investigation Unit) handles cases of child sexual abuse involving psychologically traumatized children and to identify obstacles faced by the PPA unit in handling cases of sexual violence against children experiencing psychological trauma.
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The Views About Big Data Among Professionals of Police Forces: A Scoping Review of Empirical Studies

There is a growing tendency toward the introduction of Big Data in police departments to improve the prevention and investigation of crime. However, there is little systematic knowledge about the perspectives of professionals in police forces regarding this technology. This article fills this gap by presenting a scoping review that systematizes empirical studies of the views of professionals in police forces about Big Data in the field of policing and criminal investigation. Fourteen articles were analyzed following a descriptive–analytical method. Optimistic and oppositional views about Big Data among professionals in police forces were then described.
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Correctional Officers and the Use of Force as an Organizational Behaviour

Violence by prison staff against incarcerated people is a feature of prison literature going back to the foundation of the modern penitentiary. The last 30 years, however, have seen major shifts in how coercive force is employed. In the 1980s, coercive force was a regular feature of correctional officer (or CO) work. In contrast, modern managerialist frameworks have reduced the discretionary power COs possess, and bureaucratic restrictions carefully shape how, when, and why officers employ force. Use-of-force models, which place strict limits on what is and is not permissible, ensure that uses of force in prison are legitimate and (legally) justified. These models allow administrators to defend the use of force in prison as reasonable, with no connection to historic abuses.
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Technologies of Decision Support and Proportionality in International Humanitarian Law

Both ai and text-based decision support address those in a position to practically determine matters falling within the scope of the law. For example, a commentary on the laws of war might be written for a readership of legal advisers who, in turn, support the decisions of military commanders. That commentary supports the decisions of the legal advisor on the choice of advice he or she gives, and, by extension, those of the commander. Legal texts supporting practical decisions are encountered in all fields of law. Once they have attained an authoritative status and become a standard point of reference that no serious decision taker can forego, they have a standardising effect on decisions in their field. This effect could very well be described in terms of automation. From this vantage point, a commentary on the laws of war can be analysed as an analogue form of automated decision support. To it, one might compare digitally organised and algorithmically driven forms of automated decision support (for which we will use the shorthand of ‘digital decision support’). In digital decision support, the proverbial human is at the very end of the loop, accepting or rejecting the advice generated by the interplay of algorithm and data as mandated by the law.
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How Emergency Response Teams Access Tactical Armoured Vehicles in Canada

As Canadian police services rely on their emergency response teams (ERT) to respond to different calls for service, their reliance also requires police services to possess the equipment necessary to support their ERT. Since 2004, an ongoing trend remains that police services procure tactical armoured vehicles (TAVs) for their ERTs. In the current article, we explore trends in the procurement of TAVs by Canadian police services comparatively, drawing on two distinct data sets. The first is a content analysis derived from news media and the second is the result of a survey of ERTs across Canadian police services.
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Work Overload, Role Conflict and Emotional Distress as Predictors of Burnout Among Police Cadets in Nigeria

Burnout has been investigated among different categories of human service professionals and students. However, it has not been investigated among police cadets simultaneously combining university education and police training. Hence, this study investigated the causes of burnout among the Nigeria Police Academy (POLAC) cadets in Nigeria. Specifically, using Frone et al.’s integrative model of the work–family interface, I investigated the antecedent influence of work overload (academic and police), role conflict (academic and police) and emotional distress (academic and police) on burnout among cadets.
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The Need for a Marine Forensic Laboratory for India’s Security and Indian Maritime Archaeology

An interdisciplinary discipline called maritime archaeology studies human cultures’ submerged cultural legacy. India offers tremendous opportunities for marine archaeology study due to its extensive coastline and maritime heritage. To strengthen India’s security measures, this article discusses the relevance of maritime archaeology in India and emphasizes the urgent necessity for a specialized marine forensic laboratory. The numerous facets of marine archaeology are covered in the research, along with their historical significance, archaeological methods, and national security concerns. The need to create a marine forensic lab to investigate crimes involving India’s undersea cultural treasures and improve maritime security is further emphasized.
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Maritime Cybersecurity Threats: Gaps and Directions for Future Research

The maritime industry has become vulnerable to attacks lately. These attacks often come in different forms, including cyber and piracy. Future increase in cyberattacks and cyber vulnerability for maritime supply chains is already an established consensus among practitioners and academics. It is therefore important to enact policies and build resilient systems to effectively address the threats posed by these attacks. However, there is little information in the literature regarding the research gaps and future needs of the maritime industry in terms of cyber security.
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Maritime Traffic Law of the People’s Republic of China and its Implications in International Law

In April 2021, the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress of the People’s Republic of China, through order no. 79, has revised its Maritime Traffic Laws (Maritime Traffic Laws Revision-2021), which was then enforced on September 1 2021. The revised law contains ten chapters and 122 articles that comprehensively deal with maritime traffic safety and strengthens China’s maritime traffic management. It applies in the waters within the jurisdiction of China, which is not limited to the territorial sea, and regulates Chinese ships at sea. Some revised provisions put forward new requirements, such as pre-notice for foreign vessels in some sea areas, which brings significant legal influence. As a state practice, this new revision can be seen as an interpretation of certain ambiguous concepts of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea.
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Screening Criteria of mRNA Indicators for Wound Age Estimation.

Skeletal muscle wound is one of the most common type of injuries in forensic cases due to the features of skeletal muscle, wide distribution, and shallow location. Deducing skeletal muscle wound age accurately, especially the early wound age, is an important and challenging problem in forensic science. Currently, researchers mostly use one or two types of methods, including immunohistochemistry, ELISA, qRT-PCR, or Western blotting, to determine injury time. qRT-PCR is probably the most common method to estimate early skeletal muscle wound age due to its objectivity compared with histological methods and Western blotting. Currently, qRT-PCR has been used to explore miRNA biomarkers for important reactions of burned skin, and mRNA has been extensively studied in estimating postmortem interval (PMI).
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Addressing Forensic Science Challenges with Nuclear Analytical Techniques – A Review.

With the continuous evolution of nuclear science and technology a number of techniques with analytical and imaging capabilities have become accessible. These are known collectively as “Nuclear Analytical Techniques” (NATs) and include both ion and neutron beam methods. NATs rely on the interaction of a beam of ions or neutrons with the atoms (or atomic nuclei) of the specimen probed. Based on such interactions, specific elements and isotopes can be identified and quantified in a specimen or an object. The physics of all of these techniques is very well known, and NATs may be used in a fully quantitative way, that is, first principles quantification is available as is indicated for each method in the appropriate place.
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From Criminal Interrogations to Investigative Interviews: A Bibliometric Study.

This paper presents the results of a bibliometric study providing a comprehensive overview of the social science research conducted on criminal interrogations and investigative interviews since the 1900s. The objectives are to help researchers to further understand the research field, to better communicate research findings to practitioners, to help practitioners understand the breadth of scientific knowledge on criminal interrogations and investigative interviews, and to foster dialog between researchers and practitioners.
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Applying Ecological Systems Theory to Juvenile Legal System Interventions Outcomes Research: A Measurement Framework.

Intervention research and development for youth in the juvenile legal system (JLS) has often focused on recidivism as the primary outcome of interest. Although recidivism is an important outcome, it is ultimately a downstream marker of success and is affected by changes in other domains of youths’ lives (e.g., family and peer relations, neighborhood safety, local and state-level policies). Thus, the present manuscript proposes the application of Bronfenbrenner’s (1979) theory of social ecology to selecting outcomes to assess intervention effects in JLS intervention research to better capture proximal and distal influences on youth behavior.
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The Adoption of a Crime Harm Index: A Scoping Literature Review.

Some crimes are more serious and harmful to society than others. Therefore, it has been argued that raw counts of crime do not provide a ‘meaningful bottom line indicator’ of whether public safety is improving or declining in a given period or place (Andersen & Mueller-Johnson, Citation2018, p. 68). Various scholars have long acknowledged this, and accordingly developed tools to take into account the various levels of seriousness or harm associated with different crime types. In 1964, Sellin and Wolfgang designed an index to differentiate between crime seriousness based on public survey ratings. This work was updated in The National Survey of Crime Severity in 1985, including a total of 60,000 respondents each rating the seriousness of 25 criminal events. Others have focused on estimating the monetary costs of different types of crime, including for ‘pain’ and ‘. To assist law enforcement agencies in establishing long-term suffering’ priorities in organized crime control, more recently developed a harm assessment framework, which was applied to e.g., assess the harms of cocaine trafficking.
More Details…

The Best of Both Worlds? A Hybrid Approach to Intelligence and Research.

The article aims to delineate a hybrid way of conceiving the relationship between research and intelligence, which can be called ‘research-in-support-of-intelligence’. It argues that it lies between strategic intelligence analysis and academic research, in the sense that it includes more information and a wider approach on a particular problem than in the case of a strategic intelligence product, but that it seeks to answer similar questions, and to offer guidance to policy makers about possible future developments.
More Details…

Understanding the Influence of Irrational Beliefs and Body Image Inflexibility on Exercise Dependence and Psychological Well-being: A Latent Profile Analysis Approach.

There has been significant growth in the application of rational emotive behaviour therapy in sport and exercise settings in recent years). REBT emerged in the 1950s through the work of Albert Ellis and is the first form of what would later be referred to as Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT). CBT is a family of psychotherapies that includes approaches such as cognitive therapy and acceptance and commitment therapy, alongside REBT. But REBT is distinguished from other CBTs owing to its acute focus on specifically defined irrational beliefs as the key cognitive mediators through which emotional disturbance manifests.
More Details…

A neural machine code and programming framework for the reservoir computer.

From logical reasoning to mental simulation, biological and artificial neural systems possess an incredible capacity for computation. Such neural computers offer a fundamentally novel computing paradigm by representing data continuously and processing information in a natively parallel and distributed manner. To harness this computation, prior work has developed extensive training techniques to understand existing neural networks. This article provides such a machine code along with a programming framework by using a recurrent neural network—a reservoir computer—to decompile, code and compile analogue computations and further define an implementation of neural computation that can both decompile computations from existing neural connectivity and compile distributed programs as new connections.
More Details…

The Time for International Space Traffic Management Is Now.

The New Space Era has brought significant advancements in security, connectivity, prosperity, and collective action. But this growth comes with substantial and increasingly urgent challenges. Along with the expanding number of space objects and activities, new types of near-Earth operations, such as megaconstellations of satellites, space tourism, on-orbit servicing and manufacturing, space tugs, active debris removal, and just-in-time and artificial intelligence–driven collision avoidance maneuvers, have complicated the space domain, resulting in an orbital environment that is substantially more congested and risky.
More Details…

Scientific and Technological Flows between the United States and China

Scientific and technological competition has emerged as a front on which strategic competition between the United States and China is contested. Scientific and technological dominance — the prize of this competition — has been recognized as a national priority by high-level leadership from both countries. This dominance can be attained in two primary ways: A country can rely on its domestic scientific and technology innovation resources and activities, or it can leverage foreign scientific and technological assets. In this paper, the researchers focused on the second approach for this study; in this report, they describe the benefits and liabilities associated with U.S.-Chinese scientific research collaboration.
More Details…

How Might Ukraine’s Counteroffensive End, and What Comes After?

There are indications that Ukraine is preparing to launch a counteroffensive against Russian forces in its eastern and southern regions. The West has been providing significant military assistance to Ukraine and is showing a strong commitment to supporting the country in the long term. The Western countries are also likely to assist Ukraine with reconstruction efforts on a large scale, potentially comparable to the post-World War II Marshall Plan. The importance of deterring Russian aggression in Europe and ensuring the security of Ukraine is emphasized, and the substantial support provided by the West reflects this. The aggressive actions of Russia, including severe atrocities, have further strengthened the determination of Western nations to confront Russia. As a result, there is a sense of increased unity among Western countries, possibly the strongest since the end of the Cold War three decades ago.
More Details…

Reconstructing Ukraine: Creating a Freer, More Prosperous, and Secure Future

In the wake of Russia’s full-scale invasion of Ukraine in 2022, policymakers in the United States have turned to how, in concert with allies, they can deter Chinese military action against Taiwan. The foundation of this discussion is how to provide Taiwan with the necessary defensive capabilities, as well as what investments the United States must itself make to ensure that its military can repel an attack by the People’s Liberation Army (PLA).
More Details…

Sunk Costs: The Difficulty of Using Sanctions to Deter China in a Taiwan Crisis

In the wake of Russia’s full-scale invasion of Ukraine in 2022, policymakers in the United States have turned to how, in concert with allies, they can deter Chinese military action against Taiwan. The foundation of this discussion is how to provide Taiwan with the necessary defensive capabilities, as well as what investments the United States must itself make to ensure that its military can repel an attack by the People’s Liberation Army (PLA).
More Details…

Can a Defense Innovation Bridge Elevate India-U.S. Defense Cooperation?

India and the United States are set to launch INDUS-X, an innovation bridge under the initiative on Critical and Emerging Technology (iCET) that will connect the defense innovation ecosystems of both countries. India and the United States hold defense cooperation as a major pillar of their strategic partnership, and defense ties between the two countries have deepened considerably over the last two decades. However, defense innovation cooperation has been noticeably absent from the relationship. This article explores the possibility the role of INDUS-X in bridging this gap between these large democracies.
More Details…

How to Win the AI War?

Virtually everything that everyone has been saying about AI has been misleading or wrong. This is not surprising. The processes of artificial intelligence and its digital workhorse, machine learning, can be mysteriously opaque even to its most experienced practitioners, let alone its most ignorant critics. The current flawed paradigm reads like this: How can the government mitigate the risks and disruptive changes flowing from AI’s commercial and private sector? The leading advocate for this position is Sam Altman, CEO of OpenSource AI, the company that set off the current furor with its ChatGPT application. When Altman appeared before the Senate on May 13, he warned: “I think if this technology goes wrong, it can go quite wrong.”
More Details…

Screening Criteria of mRNA Indicators for Wound Age Estimation.

Skeletal muscle wound is one of the most common type of injuries in forensic cases due to the features of skeletal muscle, wide distribution, and shallow location. Deducing skeletal muscle wound age accurately, especially the early wound age, is an important and challenging problem in forensic science. Currently, researchers mostly use one or two types of methods, including immunohistochemistry, ELISA, qRT-PCR, or Western blotting, to determine injury time. qRT-PCR is probably the most common method to estimate early skeletal muscle wound age due to its objectivity compared with histological methods and Western blotting. Currently, qRT-PCR has been used to explore miRNA biomarkers for important reactions of burned skin, and mRNA has been extensively studied in estimating postmortem interval (PMI).
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Addressing Forensic Science Challenges with Nuclear Analytical Techniques – A Review.

With the continuous evolution of nuclear science and technology a number of techniques with analytical and imaging capabilities have become accessible. These are known collectively as “Nuclear Analytical Techniques” (NATs) and include both ion and neutron beam methods. NATs rely on the interaction of a beam of ions or neutrons with the atoms (or atomic nuclei) of the specimen probed. Based on such interactions, specific elements and isotopes can be identified and quantified in a specimen or an object. The physics of all of these techniques is very well known, and NATs may be used in a fully quantitative way, that is, first principles quantification is available as is indicated for each method in the appropriate place.
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From Criminal Interrogations to Investigative Interviews: A Bibliometric Study.

This paper presents the results of a bibliometric study providing a comprehensive overview of the social science research conducted on criminal interrogations and investigative interviews since the 1900s. The objectives are to help researchers to further understand the research field, to better communicate research findings to practitioners, to help practitioners understand the breadth of scientific knowledge on criminal interrogations and investigative interviews, and to foster dialog between researchers and practitioners.
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Applying Ecological Systems Theory to Juvenile Legal System Interventions Outcomes Research: A Measurement Framework.

Intervention research and development for youth in the juvenile legal system (JLS) has often focused on recidivism as the primary outcome of interest. Although recidivism is an important outcome, it is ultimately a downstream marker of success and is affected by changes in other domains of youths’ lives (e.g., family and peer relations, neighborhood safety, local and state-level policies). Thus, the present manuscript proposes the application of Bronfenbrenner’s (1979) theory of social ecology to selecting outcomes to assess intervention effects in JLS intervention research to better capture proximal and distal influences on youth behavior.
More Details…

The Adoption of a Crime Harm Index: A Scoping Literature Review.

Some crimes are more serious and harmful to society than others. Therefore, it has been argued that raw counts of crime do not provide a ‘meaningful bottom line indicator’ of whether public safety is improving or declining in a given period or place (Andersen & Mueller-Johnson, Citation2018, p. 68). Various scholars have long acknowledged this, and accordingly developed tools to take into account the various levels of seriousness or harm associated with different crime types. In 1964, Sellin and Wolfgang designed an index to differentiate between crime seriousness based on public survey ratings. This work was updated in The National Survey of Crime Severity in 1985, including a total of 60,000 respondents each rating the seriousness of 25 criminal events. Others have focused on estimating the monetary costs of different types of crime, including for ‘pain’ and ‘. To assist law enforcement agencies in establishing long-term suffering’ priorities in organized crime control, more recently developed a harm assessment framework, which was applied to e.g., assess the harms of cocaine trafficking.
More Details…

The Best of Both Worlds? A Hybrid Approach to Intelligence and Research.

The article aims to delineate a hybrid way of conceiving the relationship between research and intelligence, which can be called ‘research-in-support-of-intelligence’. It argues that it lies between strategic intelligence analysis and academic research, in the sense that it includes more information and a wider approach on a particular problem than in the case of a strategic intelligence product, but that it seeks to answer similar questions, and to offer guidance to policy makers about possible future developments.
More Details…

Understanding the Influence of Irrational Beliefs and Body Image Inflexibility on Exercise Dependence and Psychological Well-being: A Latent Profile Analysis Approach. (New)

There has been significant growth in the application of rational emotive behaviour therapy in sport and exercise settings in recent years). REBT emerged in the 1950s through the work of Albert Ellis and is the first form of what would later be referred to as Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT). CBT is a family of psychotherapies that includes approaches such as cognitive therapy and acceptance and commitment therapy, alongside REBT. But REBT is distinguished from other CBTs owing to its acute focus on specifically defined irrational beliefs as the key cognitive mediators through which emotional disturbance manifests.
More Details…

A neural machine code and programming framework for the reservoir computer.

From logical reasoning to mental simulation, biological and artificial neural systems possess an incredible capacity for computation. Such neural computers offer a fundamentally novel computing paradigm by representing data continuously and processing information in a natively parallel and distributed manner. To harness this computation, prior work has developed extensive training techniques to understand existing neural networks. This article provides such a machine code along with a programming framework by using a recurrent neural network—a reservoir computer—to decompile, code and compile analogue computations and further define an implementation of neural computation that can both decompile computations from existing neural connectivity and compile distributed programs as new connections.
More Details…

The Time for International Space Traffic Management Is Now.

The New Space Era has brought significant advancements in security, connectivity, prosperity, and collective action. But this growth comes with substantial and increasingly urgent challenges. Along with the expanding number of space objects and activities, new types of near-Earth operations, such as megaconstellations of satellites, space tourism, on-orbit servicing and manufacturing, space tugs, active debris removal, and just-in-time and artificial intelligence–driven collision avoidance maneuvers, have complicated the space domain, resulting in an orbital environment that is substantially more congested and risky.
More Details…

Scientific and Technological Flows between the United States and China

Scientific and technological competition has emerged as a front on which strategic competition between the United States and China is contested. Scientific and technological dominance — the prize of this competition — has been recognized as a national priority by high-level leadership from both countries. This dominance can be attained in two primary ways: A country can rely on its domestic scientific and technology innovation resources and activities, or it can leverage foreign scientific and technological assets. In this paper, the researchers focused on the second approach for this study; in this report, they describe the benefits and liabilities associated with U.S.-Chinese scientific research collaboration.
More Details…

How Might Ukraine’s Counteroffensive End, and What Comes After?

There are indications that Ukraine is preparing to launch a counteroffensive against Russian forces in its eastern and southern regions. The West has been providing significant military assistance to Ukraine and is showing a strong commitment to supporting the country in the long term. The Western countries are also likely to assist Ukraine with reconstruction efforts on a large scale, potentially comparable to the post-World War II Marshall Plan. The importance of deterring Russian aggression in Europe and ensuring the security of Ukraine is emphasized, and the substantial support provided by the West reflects this. The aggressive actions of Russia, including severe atrocities, have further strengthened the determination of Western nations to confront Russia. As a result, there is a sense of increased unity among Western countries, possibly the strongest since the end of the Cold War three decades ago.
More Details…

Reconstructing Ukraine: Creating a Freer, More Prosperous, and Secure Future

In the wake of Russia’s full-scale invasion of Ukraine in 2022, policymakers in the United States have turned to how, in concert with allies, they can deter Chinese military action against Taiwan. The foundation of this discussion is how to provide Taiwan with the necessary defensive capabilities, as well as what investments the United States must itself make to ensure that its military can repel an attack by the People’s Liberation Army (PLA).
More Details…

Sunk Costs: The Difficulty of Using Sanctions to Deter China in a Taiwan Crisis

In the wake of Russia’s full-scale invasion of Ukraine in 2022, policymakers in the United States have turned to how, in concert with allies, they can deter Chinese military action against Taiwan. The foundation of this discussion is how to provide Taiwan with the necessary defensive capabilities, as well as what investments the United States must itself make to ensure that its military can repel an attack by the People’s Liberation Army (PLA).
More Details…

Can a Defense Innovation Bridge Elevate India-U.S. Defense Cooperation?

India and the United States are set to launch INDUS-X, an innovation bridge under the initiative on Critical and Emerging Technology (iCET) that will connect the defense innovation ecosystems of both countries. India and the United States hold defense cooperation as a major pillar of their strategic partnership, and defense ties between the two countries have deepened considerably over the last two decades. However, defense innovation cooperation has been noticeably absent from the relationship. This article explores the possibility the role of INDUS-X in bridging this gap between these large democracies.
More Details…

How to Win the AI War?

Virtually everything that everyone has been saying about AI has been misleading or wrong. This is not surprising. The processes of artificial intelligence and its digital workhorse, machine learning, can be mysteriously opaque even to its most experienced practitioners, let alone its most ignorant critics. The current flawed paradigm reads like this: How can the government mitigate the risks and disruptive changes flowing from AI’s commercial and private sector? The leading advocate for this position is Sam Altman, CEO of OpenSource AI, the company that set off the current furor with its ChatGPT application. When Altman appeared before the Senate on May 13, he warned: “I think if this technology goes wrong, it can go quite wrong.”
More Details…

Winthropping as an Investigative Tool in Clandestine Grave Discovery and Psychological Profiling.

Missing persons cases are some of the hardest investigations to solve. The lack of forensic evidence impedes an investigation and critical time can be lost attempting to find the person or body. Recently, researchers have attempted to develop new approaches to help police in these types of investigations. The current paper continues research into Winthropping as a means of assisting police investigations when searching for clandestine, hidden graves and missing persons. A novel approach, using geocachers, to help inform Winthropping processes is outlined, and support gained through a survey of geocachers. The findings are then applied to a series of real-world homicides, including several serial killers.
More Details…

The Influence of Time on Dynamic Signature: An Exploratory Data Analysis.

Dynamic signatures are a digitalized form of handwritten signatures. Their use has seen a steep increase for important transactions, such as life insurance and telecommunication contracts, sales and banking operations. A dynamic signature can be disputed and a forensic handwriting examiner may be hired to help determine whether it is genuine or not. Such a conflict may emerge years after the questioned signature has been affixed. Since reference material contemporary to the relevant period may not be made available to the expert, it can be questioned whether time influences dynamic signature data, which could affect the expert’s results. This study was designed to explore this possible influence.
More Details…

Toward a Unified and Secure Approach for Extraction of Forensic Digital Evidence from an IoT Device.

The IoT devices have proliferated into human lives from simple mundane to advanced lifesaving activities by means of automation, control and monitoring. This rapid deployment of IoT devices has also made them to be used as weapon for attack in crimes possibly due to immature adaptation of security solution and/or advancement in technology. The extraction of digital evidence for digital forensic from an IoT device is an important step toward proving the crime in the court of law. The available solution and research focus is toward digital forensic models and frameworks for IoT environments with limited product-specific focus on IoT device.
More Details…

Unpacking Preventive Policing: Towards a Holistic Framework

Assuming that society is better off if the harm caused by crime – including the costs entailed by the investigation, prosecution and punishment – can be avoided, the proactive approach of preventive policing (PP) is generally promoted and understood as a good and effective solution. This article unpacks the concept of PP by analysing how it has been understood and practised across time and space, and find that the ‘preventive turn’ and current aspirations for a police service with a ‘preventative mindset’ seem to require a return to a police role that might be incompatible with the liberal and democratic ideals of today.
More Details…

Risk, Reward, and Resilience Framework: Integrative Policy Making in a Complex World.

In the last few years, many states around the world have faced a series of shocks to their economies from the seizing up of global supply chains to the weaponization of trade and finance that have catapulted concerns about how to strike a balance between risk, reward, and resilience into the center of public discussions and policy-making. This Article provides a new Risk, Reward, and Resilience Framework, which synthesizes and integrates insights from diverse disciplines and domains.
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Dynamic Postural Control and Physical Stress: An Approach to Determining Injury Risk in Real Sporting Conditions.

Dynamic postural control is one of the essential factors in situations where non-contact injuries mainly occur, i.e., landing, cutting, or stopping. Therefore, testing of dynamic postural control should be implemented in injury risk assessment. Moreover, non-contact injuries mainly occur under loaded conditions when the athlete is physically stressed. Therefore, risk factors and mechanisms of these injuries should also be regarded under loading conditions and not only when the athlete is recovered. Current studies examining the influence of physical load on risk factors, such as dynamic postural control, often use cycling protocols to stress the participants. Nevertheless, most types of sports require running as a central element and the induced internal load after cycling might not be the same after running. Therefore, the current study aimed to examine the influence of a running and a cycling protocol on dynamic postural control and to determine the potential injury risk under representative conditions.
More Details…

A Mosaic of Dovetailing Laws: India’s Communications Surveillance Regime.

India’s communications surveillance regime can be aptly described as a legal mosaic with different provisions in various statutes, yet they are neatly dovetailed with each other. This Conspectus paper examines India’s communications surveillance law and analyses the characteristics of the state’s surveillance power, the nature and scope of the legal restraints and procedural safeguards afforded to prevent arbitrariness, indiscriminate use and violation of the right to communications privacy. It further identifies the key issues and major decisions of the European courts on mass surveillance in post-Puttaswamy years.
More Details…

Formative Assessment in Maritime Simulator-based Higher Education.

Assessment in maritime simulator-based education has traditionally been informal and subjective based on instructor experience. Recent research suggests that a more objective and formal approach could be beneficial. Formative assessment has attracted significant attention from higher education institutions. Thus, this study aimed to examine the current practice of formative assessment in maritime simulator-based education, with a special emphasis on simulator instructors’ teaching methods.
More Details…

‘Hybrid Warfare’ as an Academic Fashion

The ‘hybrid warfare’ concept had been coined years earlier, but became fashionable only when it was adopted and adapted by NATO in 2014, after which academic interest suddenly sky-rocketed. Academics often adopted NATO’s understanding of the concept, took for granted its fit for Russian actions, and imported its political assumptions into the academic debate. The fashionability of the term also led to band-wagoning and thus superficial engagement with both the concept and the phenomenon it was applied to. This article outlines this process and its implications for the field of Strategic Studies.
More Details…

Counterinsurgency as Fad: America’s Rushed Engagement with Irregular Warfare

The counterinsurgency era that dominated American military discussion post-9/11 has passed. The desire to move on, particularly since the loss of Afghanistan in August 2021, has left unsettled a conversation on counterinsurgency that, both among supporters and detractors, was often dangerously narrow. Too hastily embraced and too rapidly abandoned, counterinsurgency generated false promises and then became the scapegoat for poor strategy. This article examines the counterinsurgency era that was and demonstrates how fad-like engagement with the topic in both military and academic circles subverted the supposed learning process taking place.
More Details…

Coast Guard Operations: Emerging Challenges and Responses

The world’s coast guards are a motley crew, whose missions, authorities, and responsibilities vary greatly by country. Some nations have a single maritime service with both coast guard and naval responsibilities; others have a separate coast guard. Separate coast guards can be military services (or not), and may or may not have law-enforcement authorities. They are overseen by various ministries or departments, and their institutional relationships with other government agencies, including naval forces, vary greatly. Mostly, what they have in common is authority for handling some subset of a broad range of maritime missions.
More Details…

The Metaverse and Homeland Security: Opportunities and Risks of Persistent Virtual Environments

The metaverse is an emerging concept and capability supported by multiple underlying emerging technologies, but its meaning and key characteristics can be unclear and will likely change over time. Thus, its relevance to some organizations, such as the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS), can be unclear. This lack of clarity can lead to unmitigated threats and missed opportunities. It can also inhibit healthy public discourse and effective technology management generally. To help address these issues, this Perspective provides an initial review of the metaverse concept and how it might be relevant to DHS.
More Details…

Great-Power Competition and Conflict in the 21st Century Outside the Indo-Pacific and Europe

During the Barack Obama, Donald Trump, and Joe Biden administrations, the United States made countering the rise of China in the Indo-Pacific and, to a lesser extent, checking Russian revanchism in Europe core priorities of its national security strategy. Historically, however, great-power competition and conflict have taken place outside the theaters of core concern to the competing powers. This report — the summary of a four-volume series — explores where and how the United States, China, and Russia may be competing for influence in these secondary theaters (Africa, the Middle East, and Latin America); where and why competition might turn into conflict; what form that conflict might take; and what implications the findings have for the U.S. government at large, the joint force, and the Department of the Air Force. This research was completed in September 2021, before the February 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine. The report has not been subsequently revised.
More Details…

Machine Learning in Public Policy: The Perils and the Promise of Interpretability

Machine learning (ML) can have a significant impact on public policy by modeling complex relationships and augmenting human decisionmaking. However, overconfidence in results and incorrectly interpreted algorithms can lead to peril, such as the perpetuation of structural inequities. In this Perspective, the authors give an overview of ML and discuss the importance of its interpretability. In addition, they offer the following recommendations, which will help policymakers develop trustworthy, transparent, and accountable information that leads to more-objective and more-equitable policy decisions: (1) improve data through coordinated investments; (2) approach ML expecting interpretability, and be critical; and (3) leverage interpretable ML to understand policy values and predict policy impacts.
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The Threat from Commercial Cyber Proliferation

NCSC Assessment (NCSC-A) is the authoritative voice on cyber threat to the UK. It fuses all-source information – classified intelligence, industry knowledge, academic material and open source – to provide independent key judgements that inform policy decision making and improve UK cyber security. This report was produced for CYBERUK 2023 and uses formal probabilistic language (see yardstick) from NCSC-A product to inform readers about the threat to UK industry and society from commercial cyber tools and services
More Details…

Winthropping as an Investigative Tool in Clandestine Grave Discovery and Psychological Profiling.

Missing persons cases are some of the hardest investigations to solve. The lack of forensic evidence impedes an investigation and critical time can be lost attempting to find the person or body. Recently, researchers have attempted to develop new approaches to help police in these types of investigations. The current paper continues research into Winthropping as a means of assisting police investigations when searching for clandestine, hidden graves and missing persons. A novel approach, using geocachers, to help inform Winthropping processes is outlined, and support gained through a survey of geocachers. The findings are then applied to a series of real-world homicides, including several serial killers.
More Details…

The influence of time on dynamic signature: An exploratory data analysis.

Dynamic signatures are a digitalized form of handwritten signatures. Their use has seen a steep increase for important transactions, such as life insurance and telecommunication contracts, sales and banking operations. A dynamic signature can be disputed and a forensic handwriting examiner may be hired to help determine whether it is genuine or not. Such a conflict may emerge years after the questioned signature has been affixed. Since reference material contemporary to the relevant period may not be made available to the expert, it can be questioned whether time influences dynamic signature data, which could affect the expert’s results. This study was designed to explore this possible influence.
More Details…

Toward a unified and secure approach for extraction of forensic digital evidence from an IoT device.

The IoT devices have proliferated into human lives from simple mundane to advanced lifesaving activities by means of automation, control and monitoring. This rapid deployment of IoT devices has also made them to be used as weapon for attack in crimes possibly due to immature adaptation of security solution and/or advancement in technology. The extraction of digital evidence for digital forensic from an IoT device is an important step toward proving the crime in the court of law. The available solution and research focus is toward digital forensic models and frameworks for IoT environments with limited product-specific focus on IoT device.
More Details…

Unpacking preventive policing: Towards a holistic framework

Assuming that society is better off if the harm caused by crime – including the costs entailed by the investigation, prosecution and punishment – can be avoided, the proactive approach of preventive policing (PP) is generally promoted and understood as a good and effective solution. This article unpacks the concept of PP by analysing how it has been understood and practised across time and space, and find that the ‘preventive turn’ and current aspirations for a police service with a ‘preventative mindset’ seem to require a return to a police role that might be incompatible with the liberal and democratic ideals of today.
More Details…

Risk, Reward, and Resilience Framework: Integrative Policy Making in a Complex World.

Assuming that society is better off if the harm caused by crime – including the costs entailed by the investigation, prosecution and punishment – can be avoided, the proactive approach of preventive policing (PP) is generally promoted and understood as a good and effective solution. This article unpacks the concept of PP by analysing how it has been understood and practised across time and space, and find that the ‘preventive turn’ and current aspirations for a police service with a ‘preventative mindset’ seem to require a return to a police role that might be incompatible with the liberal and democratic ideals of today.
More Details…

Dynamic postural control and physical stress: an approach to determining injury risk in real sporting conditions.

Dynamic postural control is one of the essential factors in situations where non-contact injuries mainly occur, i.e., landing, cutting, or stopping. Therefore, testing of dynamic postural control should be implemented in injury risk assessment. Moreover, non-contact injuries mainly occur under loaded conditions when the athlete is physically stressed. Therefore, risk factors and mechanisms of these injuries should also be regarded under loading conditions and not only when the athlete is recovered. Current studies examining the influence of physical load on risk factors, such as dynamic postural control, often use cycling protocols to stress the participants. Nevertheless, most types of sports require running as a central element and the induced internal load after cycling might not be the same after running. Therefore, the current study aimed to examine the influence of a running and a cycling protocol on dynamic postural control and to determine the potential injury risk under representative conditions.
More Details…

A mosaic of dovetailing laws: India’s communications surveillance regime.

India’s communications surveillance regime can be aptly described as a legal mosaic with different provisions in various statutes, yet they are neatly dovetailed with each other. This Conspectus paper examines India’s communications surveillance law and analyses the characteristics of the state’s surveillance power, the nature and scope of the legal restraints and procedural safeguards afforded to prevent arbitrariness, indiscriminate use and violation of the right to communications privacy. It further identifies the key issues and major decisions of the European courts on mass surveillance in post-Puttaswamy years.
More Details…

Formative assessment in maritime simulator-based higher education.

Assessment in maritime simulator-based education has traditionally been informal and subjective based on instructor experience. Recent research suggests that a more objective and formal approach could be beneficial. Formative assessment has attracted significant attention from higher education institutions. Thus, this study aimed to examine the current practice of formative assessment in maritime simulator-based education, with a special emphasis on simulator instructors’ teaching methods.
More Details…

‘Hybrid warfare’ as an academic fashion

The ‘hybrid warfare’ concept had been coined years earlier, but became fashionable only when it was adopted and adapted by NATO in 2014, after which academic interest suddenly sky-rocketed. Academics often adopted NATO’s understanding of the concept, took for granted its fit for Russian actions, and imported its political assumptions into the academic debate. The fashionability of the term also led to band-wagoning and thus superficial engagement with both the concept and the phenomenon it was applied to. This article outlines this process and its implications for the field of Strategic Studies.
More Details…

Counterinsurgency as fad: America’s rushed engagement with irregular warfare

The counterinsurgency era that dominated American military discussion post-9/11 has passed. The desire to move on, particularly since the loss of Afghanistan in August 2021, has left unsettled a conversation on counterinsurgency that, both among supporters and detractors, was often dangerously narrow. Too hastily embraced and too rapidly abandoned, counterinsurgency generated false promises and then became the scapegoat for poor strategy. This article examines the counterinsurgency era that was and demonstrates how fad-like engagement with the topic in both military and academic circles subverted the supposed learning process taking place.
More Details…

Coast Guard Operations: Emerging Challenges and Responses

The world’s coast guards are a motley crew, whose missions, authorities, and responsibilities vary greatly by country. Some nations have a single maritime service with both coast guard and naval responsibilities; others have a separate coast guard. Separate coast guards can be military services (or not), and may or may not have law-enforcement authorities. They are overseen by various ministries or departments, and their institutional relationships with other government agencies, including naval forces, vary greatly. Mostly, what they have in common is authority for handling some subset of a broad range of maritime missions.
More Details…

The Metaverse and Homeland Security: Opportunities and Risks of Persistent Virtual Environments

The metaverse is an emerging concept and capability supported by multiple underlying emerging technologies, but its meaning and key characteristics can be unclear and will likely change over time. Thus, its relevance to some organizations, such as the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS), can be unclear. This lack of clarity can lead to unmitigated threats and missed opportunities. It can also inhibit healthy public discourse and effective technology management generally. To help address these issues, this Perspective provides an initial review of the metaverse concept and how it might be relevant to DHS.
More Details…

Great-Power Competition and Conflict in the 21st Century Outside the Indo-Pacific and Europe

During the Barack Obama, Donald Trump, and Joe Biden administrations, the United States made countering the rise of China in the Indo-Pacific and, to a lesser extent, checking Russian revanchism in Europe core priorities of its national security strategy. Historically, however, great-power competition and conflict have taken place outside the theaters of core concern to the competing powers. This report — the summary of a four-volume series — explores where and how the United States, China, and Russia may be competing for influence in these secondary theaters (Africa, the Middle East, and Latin America); where and why competition might turn into conflict; what form that conflict might take; and what implications the findings have for the U.S. government at large, the joint force, and the Department of the Air Force. This research was completed in September 2021, before the February 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine. The report has not been subsequently revised.
More Details…

Machine Learning in Public Policy: The Perils and the Promise of Interpretability

Machine learning (ML) can have a significant impact on public policy by modeling complex relationships and augmenting human decisionmaking. However, overconfidence in results and incorrectly interpreted algorithms can lead to peril, such as the perpetuation of structural inequities. In this Perspective, the authors give an overview of ML and discuss the importance of its interpretability. In addition, they offer the following recommendations, which will help policymakers develop trustworthy, transparent, and accountable information that leads to more-objective and more-equitable policy decisions: (1) improve data through coordinated investments; (2) approach ML expecting interpretability, and be critical; and (3) leverage interpretable ML to understand policy values and predict policy impacts.
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The threat from commercial cyber proliferation

NCSC Assessment (NCSC-A) is the authoritative voice on cyber threat to the UK. It fuses all-source information – classified intelligence, industry knowledge, academic material and open source – to provide independent key judgements that inform policy decision making and improve UK cyber security. This report was produced for CYBERUK 2023 and uses formal probabilistic language (see yardstick) from NCSC-A product to inform readers about the threat to UK industry and society from commercial cyber tools and services.
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Validity of forensic cartridge-case comparisons

This article presents key findings from a research project that evaluated the validity and probative value of cartridge-case comparisons under field-based conditions. Decisions provided by 228 trained firearm examiners across the US showed that forensic cartridge-case comparison is characterized by low error rates. However, inconclusive decisions constituted over one-fifth of all decisions rendered, complicating the evaluation of the technique’s ability to yield unambiguously correct decisions
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Is It Time to Revisit the Definition of Serial Homicide? New Evidence and Theory

Experts have defined serial homicide in different ways, but recently, there have been efforts to establish a consensus definition. However, the controversy persists over whether to prioritize qualitative definitional features, such as offenders’ motives and intentions, or more observable quantitative features, such as a minimum threshold of completed murders. This technical note briefly outlines this controversy before discussing new empirical and theoretical research, which supports a definition of serial homicide that includes a three-victim minimum threshold of forensically linked murders committed by the same person(s) in separate events over time, often driven by a primary motive of personal gratification or leisure experience.
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Linguistic Indicators of Psychopathy and Malignant Narcissism in the Personal Letters of the Austrian Killer Jack Unterweger

Forensic authorship profiling aims to extract socio-demographic information about the authors of anonymous texts based on linguistic features found in their written texts. One aspect of such a profile that is not usually considered is an analysis of the author’s personality traits. The present study intends to provide a starting point for research into this area. This will be achieved through the investigation of linguistic features reflective of the conditions of psychopathy and malignant narcissism in 14 personal letters of the killer Jack Unterweger. Previous research in the field of psychology has largely examined “psychopathic” and “narcissistic” language in spoken conversations rather than written ones or in texts produced for the respective study rather than in naturally occurring texts.
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The Use of Volatile Substances in Drug-Facilitated Sexual Assault: A Systematic Review

Drug-facilitated sexual assault (DFSA) is a significant crime that is increasing in incidence. The employment of volatile substances such as chloroform and aromatic petroleum hydrocarbons in DFSAs is quite an unusual choice.
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UK’s Parliamentary Report on Russian grand strategy

This report discusses the West’s relationship with Russia, highlighting the misconceptions and misunderstandings between the two sides. It mentions Russia’s National Security Strategy, which emphasizes sovereignty, independence, and territorial integrity as key priorities. Russian officials accuse the West of undermining international law, while the West accuses Russia of destabilizing the international system. The NATO Secretary General rejects Russian attempts to establish influence, and diplomatic talks regarding Ukraine and European security have not yielded significant progress. The situation remains tense, with Russia denying plans for a Ukraine invasion.
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Annual Threat Assessment of the U.S. Intelligence Community

This report reflects the collective insights of the Intelligence Community (IC), which is committed every day to providing the nuanced, independent, and unvarnished intelligence that policymakers, warfighters, and domestic law enforcement personnel need to protect American lives and America’s interests anywhere in the world.
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Defence of Japan 2022

This edition of Defence of Japan covers the defence and security environment of Japan and the initiatives of the Ministry of Defence (MOD) and the Self-Defence Forces (SDF) during the one year from April 2021 to March 2022. However, certain important events that took place in the latter half of May 2022 are also described.
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How the Ukraine War Accelerates the Defence Strategy

The 2022 National Defence Strategy’s prioritization is crystal clear: China, not Russia, is the Defence Department’s top priority. Yet as the Russia-Ukraine war rages on and the Defence Department continues pouring resources into the effort, is this a failure of prioritization that bends or breaks the strategy? No. It’s the opposite. A counterintuitive result of the war in Ukraine is that it enhances the Defence Department’s ability to outpace its top strategic competitor, China.
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Opportunities and Risks of 5G Military Use in Europe

This article explores the expansion of 5G technology in Europe and its implications for the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD). The authors analyze the military utility of 5G based on Russian experts’ assessments and identify opportunities and risks for the DoD in a Baltic scenario. They also emphasize Russia’s potential countermeasures against 5G technologies in a conflict scenario. The article identifies key benefits of 5G, such as enhanced tracking, high-speed data transfer, and remote communications, and offers recommendations for future research and collaboration with European allies.
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Neurodiversity and National Security: How to Tackle National Security Challenges with a Wider Range of Cognitive Talents

National security organizations need highly skilled and intellectually creative individuals who are eager to apply their talents to address the nation’s most pressing challenges. In public and private discussions, officials and experts addressed the need for neurodiversity in the national security community. They described missions that are too important and too difficult to be left to those who use their brains only in typical ways
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The Concept of The Foreign Policy of The Russian Federation

This Concept is a strategic planning document which provides a systemic vision of the national interests of the Russian Federation in the domain of foreign policy, basic principles, strategic goals, major objectives and priority areas of the Russian foreign policy.
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India-China Border Tensions and U.S. Strategy in The Indo-Pacific

The article discusses escalating border tensions between India and China, highlighting the need for US involvement and support for India. It emphasizes the importance of monitoring the situation, offering military assistance, and addressing Chinese aggression in the region.
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What’s Worth Fighting For: Germany’s New National Security Strategy Needs A Narrative

The speeches on the first anniversary of Russia’s war on Ukraine have been delivered, and so have the comments dissecting Germany’s ensuing Zeitenwende or historical turning point. Here’s the short version: the war will go on for a long time and demand a lot from Europe. Germany, for its part, has shown solidarity with Ukraine and drastically reduced its depen­dence on Russian oil and gas. However, the necessary transformation of the Bundeswehr for more effective national and alliance defence is still in its infancy – the outcome remains uncertain.
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How A Fleet of Private Satellites Can Help Secure the US Military’s Future

The US Space Force has started looking at setting up a civilian reserve satellite fleet. Officially titled the Commercial Augmentation Space Reserve (CASR), this collection of commercial satellites would be dedicated to assisting the military during emergencies in which the Department of Defense’s (DOD) satellite capabilities fall short.
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The 5×5—Cryptocurrency Hacking’s Geopolitical and Cyber Implications

In January 2023, a South Korean intelligence service and a team of US private investigators conducted an operation to interdict $100 million worth of stolen cryptocurrency before its hackers could successfully convert the haul into fiat currency. The operation was the culmination of a roughly seven-month hunt to trace and retrieve the funds, stolen in June 2022 from a US-based cryptocurrency company, Harmony.
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Evaluation of California’s Statewide Mental Health Prevention and Early Intervention Initiatives

CalMHSA has implemented prevention and early intervention programs to reduce negative outcomes for people experiencing mental illness. Initially, these programs spanned three strategic initiatives: Stigma and Discrimination reduction Suicide Prevention Student Mental Health.
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Environmental Racism Mapping the Legacy of Historic Redlining on Urban Environments

Environmental measures such as air quality, heat, traffic levels, and how much greenery we enjoy, all contribute to our quality of life. And these factors vary widely between communities, with some bearing a far greater environmental burden than others. In the United States, communities of color and low-income communities are more likely to include hazardous waste facilities, have poorer air quality, and be affected by climate change impacts.
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Comparison of criminal history information systems in the United States and other nations

There is considerable variation among the criminal-history information systems of Australia, Canada, Germany, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and the United States regarding how they approach the collection, management, and uses of criminal-history information through their national information systems.
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UK Strategy for the High North

The UK’s current engagement with the region revolves around its observer status at the Arctic Council, strong contributions to science and climate action, active participation in frameworks such as the Arctic Security Forces Roundtable, coordination of the Northern Group and the Joint Expeditionary Force, and role in the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO).
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Terrorism attacks using vehicles: the evidence on measures to prevent and mitigate

Researchers identified legal, practical and technological challenges to preventing vehicular terrorism and offered an assessment of future threats and vulnerabilities.
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Understanding how acts of violence are classified

Researchers found that classifying an act of violence is driven by knowledge of the perpetrator’s motivation, recognition of the ideology, and availability of information on mental health and social media use.
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Comparison of criminal history information systems in the United States and other nations

There is considerable variation among the criminal-history information systems of Australia, Canada, Germany, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and the United States regarding how they approach the collection, management, and uses of criminal-history information through their national information systems.
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Prepare, Respond and Recover: how UK Defence could support societal resilience to crisis events

Researchers developed a conceptual framework that includes three phases of societal resilience: Prepare, Respond and Recover. The team identified a set of proposals to help UK Defence improve how it conceptualises and operationalises societal resilience.
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How to evaluate counterterrorism policies and interventions

Researchers developed an inventory of 48 published and unpublished evaluations conducted between 2013 and 2017, as well as an analytical framework for assessing these evaluations.
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Radicalisation in the digital era

We live in a digital era. In the UK alone, 85 percent of homes have internet access. As society increasingly embraces the internet, so opportunities for those wishing to use it for terrorism have grown.
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What factors encourage witnesses of intimate partner violence to help?

The EU has long recognized that violence against women is a violation of human rights and a form of gender-based discrimination that has a terrible impact on victims and significant costs for society.
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Developing tools to assess evidence for policymakers and practitioners

At the request of the College of Policing and the Education Endowment Foundation (EEF), researchers reviewed existing challenges in the assessment of social policy evidence and outlined the emerging best practices in the field.
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Linking hate speech online and hate crime

Official reports often underestimate the true prevalence of hate crime. Difficulty then arises in identifying trends in hate crime, especially at a local level. As online hate speech becomes more and more prolific, this information may be used to identify where hate crimes are most likely to occur and at whom they are most likely targeted.
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How AI can support the European Border and Coast Guard

The EU faces a number of threats at the external borders, stemming from factors such as irregular migration, people smuggling, human trafficking, illegal weapons, and drugs. Artificial Intelligence (AI) yields great potential to significantly enhance the effectiveness of security and operational activities at the borders and beyond, with direct and multiplying impact on internal security.
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The cost of terrorism in Europe

Besides the loss-of-life and sometimes life-changing injuries for the victims, terrorism leads to significant economic effects, with businesses, cities and nations losing billions in the aftermath of attacks.
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America’s 5G Era Gaining Competitive Advantages While Securing the Country and Its People

The latest generation of wireless networks, called 5G (for “fifth generation”), has launched with great expectations and amid significant concerns. A theme running through discussions of the 5G era is that this is a race, that first movers will dominate all others, and that this dominance will provide enduring economic and technical benefits to those first movers’ home countries and populations.
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Enhancing Defenders’ Predictive Power in Cyberspace

In the first two decades of the 21st century, the coevolutionary adaptation of cyber threat actors and technology has been akin to an escalatory arms race between cyber offense and cyber defense.
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UK Policing and Security

The research takes a practitioner-led approach, with a focus on assisting government and law enforcement agencies in developing policy and strategy to address complex security challenges.
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UK project on nuclear issues

The research aims to foster the emergence of a next generation of nuclear experts and build a broad knowledge base for the nuclear community.
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Future Cyber Security Strategy in UK

Research focuses on existing and future options of cyber security strategy for UK government to formulate a new Strategy post-2021 and goal of it is to identify the roles of individuals in cyber security.
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Understanding the public’s priorities for policing in UK

Understanding the public’s priorities for policing in UK
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Developing a tailored approach to policing young adults in UK

This research is related to the Knowledge Exchange Network that brings together police Inspectors and Chief Inspectors from across England and Wales to co-create new and better ways of policing young adults aged 18-25 by Police Foundation.
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Gun Policy in USA

The primary focus of the research was the systematic review of 18 broad classes of gun policies that have been implemented in some states and the effects of those policies on various outcomes.
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Software Acquisition Workforce Initiative for the Department of Defense, USA

Research is on proliferation of the software acquisition workforce to rapidly and reliably deliver complex software-dependent capabilities through an enhanced understanding of technical competencies, improvements in education and training, and guidance for workforce management and assessment of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD)
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Arctic Climate Change: Implications for U.S. National Security

Research emphases on American infrastructure, regional food webs and population health because Arctic climate change threatens U.S. national security and above said domains were main affected domains.
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Internal security research (Policy oriented) by National Institute of Defense studies, Japan

Research on various security issues in Japan which includes Strategic environment in the Asia Pacific region, Global security challenges, the role of modern conflict and military power and Management and operation of the Self-Defense Forces.
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Cyber Security Policy Model, Israel

This research is conducted by Israel National Cyber Bureau (INCB) which examines the elements of the creation of a cyber-security policy model at a national level. It further introduces comparable policies including the balancing of cyber security with civil liberties, cybercrime policy, adherence to international law and international humanitarian law, forms of regulation (technological standards, legislation, courts, markets or norms) and prevalent forms of cooperation (intra-governmental, regional, public-private platform (PPP) and inter-governmental cooperation).
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The Past, Present, and Future of Russia’s Cyber Strategy and Forces, Russia

The research focuses on more detailed data and analysis on the role of cyber-attacks in Russia’s security strategy and its reflection in the evolution of Russia’s cyber forces.
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National security policy and practice in Australia

This project encompasses historical and contemporary research across a range of discrete traditional and non-traditional security topics informed by theoretical and applied empirical scholarship.
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Chinese Views of Big Data Analytics

Research topic on national big data strategy, an effort that encompasses economic, military, police, and intelligence functions.
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China sets up national laboratory for advanced policing

Laboratory named National Engineering Laboratory (NEL) for Big Data Application on Social Security Risks Sensing, Prevention and Control was setup by China Electronics Technology Group (2020) to perform research on advanced policing techniques such as prediction of criminal behavior and emotion recognition.
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Radicalisation: Perspectives from India and Bangladesh

This is a joint research collaboration between CLAWS (New Delhi) – Bangladesh Institute of Peace and Security Studies (BIPSS) (Bangladesh) where key challenges like Radicalisation, Female, Cyber, Strategy and Countering Violent Extremism are discussed.
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Community policing in Sri Lanka: a foundation for wider police reform?

This study is related to community policing where purpose is often to improve community-police relations and ensure greater police responsiveness to local safety and security issues
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The Bangladesh Institute of Peace and Security Studies (BIPSS) conducts research and study on Bangladeshi and South Asian conflict and security issues.

The research study mainly focuses on traditional and non – traditional security issues in its analyses where aim is to strengthen regional perspectives towards human security.
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Responding to Emerging Security Challenges in NATO’s Southern Neighbourhood

The project is on in-depth analysis of geo-political, socio-economic and energy related challenges that may impose upon the security of NATO’s southern neighbourhood and focuses on scenario building to develop alternative futures for the region.
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Justice programme “J-safe: judicial strategy against all forms of violent extremism in prison”

Goal of research is to explore prison radicalisation, the related strategies or risk assessment tools already implemented in order to identify gaps and lacks in preventing radicalisation that leads to terrorism in European countries’ prisons.
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European forum for Urban security

This research focuses on sensitize local actors and strengthen their capacity to reduce collective defenselessness to radicalization while reducing the phenomenon of polarization.
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Pakistan National Internal Security Policy 2018-2023

Research paper is on the National Internal Security Policy (NISP) 2018 that provides a comprehensive framework for dealing with internal security challenges such as Extremism and terrorism.
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Vision
  • Facilitating University’s recognition as a premier institution for intellectual inquiry and innovation.
  • Emerging as a Global leader in research-based education.
  • Solving real-world problems through action-oriented research.
  • Enabling students and faculty to engage in impactful work that contributes to National Security.
Past Events
  1. “Guiding Futures : Lecture on Fundamentals of National Security Management – By Shri. D C Pathak, Former Chairman(JIC) and Former Director (IB)at RRU on 13th December 2023. Shri. Pathak interacted with faculties and students across different schools during his visit from December 12 to December 14, 2023.”
  2. Teaching Transformed: Mastering the Case study approach-Workshop on Case Study Approach for RRU Faculty/ Research Staff in 03(Three) interactive Sessions by Prof. Rekha Jain (Former Professor IIMA) Dt. 22/04/2023, Dt. 22/07/2023 and Dt.16/09/2023
  3. Training of Trainers (ToT) Programme on “Intellectual Property Rights (IPR), Organized by the Directorate of Research and Publications, Rashtriya Raksha University (RRU) in collaboration with Cell for IPR Promotion and Management (CIPAM), Government of India (25 – 26 August 2022 )
  4. Three days of offline Workshop on “R Analytics” jointly organized by the Directorate of Research and Publications, Rashtriya Raksha University (RRU) and Knowledge Consortium of Gujarat (KCG), Department of Education, Government of Gujarat( 19 – 21 July 2022 )
  5. One-day workshop on “Ethical Research and Integrity in Publication” organized by the Directorate of Research and Publications, Rashtriya Raksha University (RRU)( 17-06-2022 )
  6. Online Session on “Qualitative Methodology” organized by the Directorate of Research and Publications, Rashtriya Raksha University (RRU)( 12-04-2022 )
  7. Three days workshop on “Qualitative Research using NVIVO” jointly organized by the Directorate of Research and Publications, Rashtriya Raksha University (RRU) and Knowledge Consortium of Gujarat (KCG), Department of Education, Government of Gujarat( 25 – 27 May 2022 )
  8. IPR Awareness Programme jointly organized by the Ministry of Commerce and Industry, Department for Promotion of Industry and Internal Trade, Office of the Controller General of Patents, Designs & Trademarks, Government of India in collaboration with the Directorate of Research & Publications, Rashtriya Raksha University (RRU)( 3rd March 2022 )
  9. Online International Workshop on “Data Science with Machine Learning for Research Scholars and Faculties” jointly organized by the Directorate of Research and Publications, Rashtriya Raksha University (RRU) and Knowledge Consortium of Gujarat (KCG), Department of Education, Government of Gujarat( 21-25 February 2021 )
  10. National Level five days online Advanced level FDP sponsored by AICTE-ATAL on “Intelligent Data Analytics for Critical Infrastructure Security” organized by Directorate of Research and Publications, Rashtriya Raksha University (RRU)( 6 – 10 December 2021 )
  11. Two Days National Conference on “National Security & Cyberspace: Issues & Challenges” jointly organized by the Rashtriya Raksha University and the Central University of Gujarat( 22 – 23 November 2021 )
  12. One-week Professional Certificate Programme sponsored by KCG (under TEERTH Scheme) on Data Analytics for Social Science Research from 15th to 19th November 2021.( 15th to 19th November 2021 )
  13. Demonstration lecture on “CMIE Database” organized by the Directorate of Research and Publications, Rashtriya Raksha University (RRU)( 25-10-2021 )
  14. One Week Online Faculty Development Programme on “Research Methodology & Research Writing” jointly organized by the Directorate of Research and Publications, Rashtriya Raksha University (RRU) and Knowledge Consortium of Gujarat (KCG), Department of Education, Government of Gujarat( 9 – 16 September 2021 )
  15. National Level five days online Elementary level FDP sponsored by AICTE-ATAL on “Intelligent Data Analytics for Critical Infrastructure Security” organized by Directorate of Research and Publications, Rashtriya Raksha University (RRU)( 23 -27 August 2021 )
  16. Expert talk on “Citation and Referencing( 13-08-2021 )
  17. National Workshop on “Coastal Security” a joint initiative by Rashtriya Raksha University (RRU), Gujarat, and Tamil Nadu Police( 30-07-2021 )
  18. Expert Talk on IPR( 28-07-2021 )
  19. Online session on Paraphrasing methods for effective writing( 08-06-2021 )
  20. Two Days Workshop on “Statistical Techniques using SPSS” organized by the Directorate of Research and Publications, Rashtriya Raksha University (RRU)( 4-5 June 2021 )
  21. Online demonstration lecture on NVIVO software (31st May 2021 )
  22. Expert Talk on “Qualitative Research using Software” organized by the Directorate of Research and Publications, Rashtriya Raksha University (RRU) (15-05-2021 )
  23. Data Analysis using R( 18-02-2021 )
  24. One week workshop on Research Methodology for CRPF and ISA, Mount Abu staff ( 25-30 Jan 2021 )
  25. Two days workshop on Research Methodology and Research Writing in collaboration with KCG ( 4 – 5 Feb 2021 )
  26. Two days programme on Intellectual Property Rights in Collaboration with CIPAM, Ministry of Commerce and Industries, Government of India( 28-29 Jan- 2021 )
  27. Three Days Training Programme on Applied Statistics using IBM SPSS Statistics for Research (15th – 17th January 2021 )
  28. Talk with RJ Devaki on Gender Sensitization at workplace (22-December 2020)
  29. Virtual Workshop on “Research Methodology & Research Metrics”, jointly Organised by Research and Publications Division and School of Forensic Science and Risk Management( 16-12-2020 )
  30. Supercomputing and Cyber Security Threats( 21-11-2020 )
  31. Online International Workshop on “Data Science and Machine Learning for Academicians and Researchers( 5 – 7 November 2020 )
  32. Expert Talk on “Research Metrics and Indicators”( 03-11-2020 )
  33. FDP on “Research Methodology & Research Writing”( 23 – 30 September, 2020 )
  34. In-House Training programme on “SPSS STATISTICS ESSENTIALS (Module -1)”( 10 – 11 September, 2020 )
  35. Online demonstration session on “STATCRAFT”( 10-08-2020 )
  36. Training of Trainers in Intellectual Property Right( 08-07-2020 )
  37. Online demonstration session on “SPSS 26.0 Module Specification”( 24-07-2020 )
  38. One-week online Faculty Development program on “Research Methods & Data Analysis” ( 13 – 18 July, 2020 )
  39. Seminar on “Internet of Medical Things and Network Data Forensics” by Dr. Hardik Gohel & Oguntoyinbo Olufunmilayo R ( 07-08-2020 )
  40. Public Lecture Series on “Sports Injury: Running Related Lower Limb Injury” by Mr. Hemntajit Gogoi ( 29/6/2020 )
  41. Demonstration Lecture on “CMIE Data Base” by Mr. Prashant Joshi,Technical Expert,CMIE (25/6/2020 )
  42. One day online certificate program on “Research Ethics” (20/6/2020 )
  43. One Day National Symposium on “Artificial Intelligence” by Prof. B. V. Buddhadev & Mr. Rakshit Tandon
  44. Expert Talk on “Finerprint and its Behavior” by Mr. Marcus & Mr. Darpan Vyas, CFMID
  45. Expert Talk on “Intellectual Property Right” by Shri B P Singh
  46. Expert Talk on “Latest Trend in Computer Science” by Dr. Sheng Lung Peng, National Dong Hwa University, Taiwan
Mission
  • To create a conducive research environment that facilitates rigour and creativity.
  • Disseminate the Universities research culture across platforms
  • Engaging in emphasizing on primary research with wide ranging implications for policy formulation.
  • Effective communication with the broader research community on key national security priorities.
About Research & Publications

The Directorate of Research and Publications focuses on conducting and publishing research, providing education, imparting training, creating policy papers and undertaking cutting edge projects on national security. It aims to foster a culture of innovation and collaboration, bringing together researchers, policymakers and opinion influencers from diverse domains to address specific and complex national security challenges. The Directorate prioritizes transdisciplinary research and cross-sector collaboration, recognizing that national security challenges often transcend multiple domains. It also endeavors to attract and retain top talents to make them leaders in their respective field with the ability to think critically, act proactively, and communicate effectively.

Rashtriya Raksha University is also certified and registered by the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research (DSIR). Click here to view certificate

Emeritus Resource Faculties
Journal
International Research Journal on Police Science (IRJPS)
Chanakya: National Security Journal of India


Publications by Faculties

International Resident Scholars

Research Area: Foreign Policy and Internal Security Interests, research, political science and international relations

Students Research Interns:
  • Gold medalist in MSC Forensic Science with expertise in serological techniques and hands-on training. Published three international papers and possesses a strong background in psychology.
  • Graduated in Computer Science and Engineering in 2021 from Rastriya Raksha University with academic excellence Gold Medal. He has been making significant contributions as Software Engineer (Backend) at Sun King, a startup dedicated to provide energy solutions to developing nations.
  • Undergraduate with Bachelor of Technology in Computer Science and Engineering specializing in Cybersecurity. Experienced Forecaster with a successful background in the public policy industry.
  • Working as developer at Tata Consultancy Services, utilizing his coding and programming skills to make valuable contributions to the organization. Graduated in 2022 from Rashtriya Raksha University with a bachelor’s degree in Computer Science.
Cells

Publication Cell

  • The First Issue of the University Magazine named “KAVACH” was first released on 15th April, 2013.
  • International Research Journal of Police Science started from Jul-Dec 2015 & first issue is distributed in DG conference Booklet on Commemoration Day.
  • RRU Newsletter covers all events, programs and activities of RRU.

IPR Cell

  • IPR cell organizes awareness programs/trainings & processes filing of IPR.
  • Cell for IPR Promotion and Management (CIPAM) Department of Industrial Policy & Promotion | Ministry of Commerce & Industry & RRU jointly to organize TOTs.

Traffic Cell

RRU Traffic Cell includes following projects:

  • Know Your Police Men- A Mobile Application
  • Share a Ride- Mobile Application
  • Smart Vehicle Stack
UGC CARE Approved Journal list

The following journals are part of the UGC-CARE List as Group I & Group II are searchable through the following respective links.

Journals found qualified through UGC-CARE protocols

List Group I – Click here

Journals indexed in globally recognized databases (includes only Web of Science and Scopus) – UGC-CARE List Group II

  • Web of Science Core Collection (including Arts & Humanities Citation Index, Science Citation Index Expanded, and Social Sciences Citation Index) –Click here
  • Scopus Collection: Click here to know more!

Check the list of cloned journals by using the following links

List of cloned journals Group I: Click here

List of cloned journals Group II:Click here

Our Partners

CIPAM Golden jubilee
CIPAM Symbiosis
Gujarat Technological University DRDO
Gujarat Technological University DRDO
Indian Army Central University Og Gujarat
CID Crime Gujarat,Gujarat Police,CID Central University Of Gujarat

News Bulletin

R&P Dashboard Click Here

SRA

Sr. No Name Institution
1 Taksh Barot SITAICS, RRU
2 Shivani Thalia SCBS, RRU
3 Nirosha Noha SCBS, RRU
4 Nikhitha SCBS, RRU
5 Vishal katariya SISPA, RRU
6 Amrutha Babu T.K. SCBS, RRU
7 Devarshi Vithalani SISPA, RRU
Message from Dean

Greetings from the Directorate of Research and Publications !

The Directorate is resolutely committed towards showing passion, perseverance, and integrity that will serve as a constant inspiration, propelling us forward in every endeavor we undertake. As our research efforts advance, I wish to emphasize the crucial importance of upholding the highest ethical standards across all aspects of our work. Our dedication to academic honesty and transparency is instrumental in ensuring the dependability and credibility of our findings.

Further, it is vital that we maintain the utmost standards of rigour in our research. Employing robust and reliable methodologies is essential for guaranteeing the accuracy and validity of results. Diligence in data collection, analysis, and interpretation is necessary, coupled with a willingness to embrace new and innovative research techniques that advance our understanding of critical issues. By remaining open to fresh approaches, we can continuously remain at the forefront and make impactful contributions to nation building.

It is our duty to provide realistic assessments on matters that impact national security. We are endeavouring towards identifying and analyzing emerging threats and challenges and disseminating our findings to policymakers and stakeholders. Through these actions, we can play a pivotal role in shaping policies that enhance the safety and security of our nation.

I implore you to embody the research culture and values that define our institution and share them widely. Let us steadfastly uphold our commitment to research excellence, fostering positive change in both our society and nation.

Jai Hind!!

Dr. Anand Kumar Tripathi

Dean, Research & Publications

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Dr. Nandha Kumara Pujam S.

Deputy Dean, Research & Publication (R&P)

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